The SPC2 series single-photon counting cameras are based on the new Single Photon Imaging Detector (SPID), which enables parallel single photon counting by means of a monolithic array of 1024 SPAD (32 rows by 32 columns) with integrated counting electronics. SPID smart pixel architecture allows fast photon counting up to 49 kfps, with negligible dead-time among frames. At the maximum frame-rate, photon counting dynamics is 8-bit, but camera processing electronics allows noiseless frame binning, thus providing higher dynamics at lower frame-rates.
A common gate input (built into the camera) enables counting only during specific time-windows, which means that the SPC2 can be used for indirect ranging measurements (iTOF), i.e. the SPC2 measurement will be based on the “photon counting” of back reflected photons within well-defined time-slots, synchronous with the burst illumination or the CW modulation of a dedicated illuminator. Such “indirect” TOF measurements based on the “digital” count of single photons will positively compare with the standard “analog” approach, impaired by “analog” noise and limitation in SNR and sensitivity.
SPC2 camera is equipped with a USB 2.0 connection to enable fast data upload to a PC and parameters. The imager can easily be integrated into common optical setups thanks to the c-mount mechanical adapter. DLLs for easy integration in most application are provided.
Main module features:
1024 detectors – full parallel operation
Frame-rate up to 49 kfps
Detection efficiency up to 38% @ 400nm
Gating function down to 1.5ns
USB 2.0 interface for easiness of use
Easy customization through set of provided DLLs (C, C++, C# & Matlab)
Robust and low cost
Low power consumption (USB-powered)
F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-Dimensional SPAD Imaging Camera for Photon Counting”, IEEE Photonics J., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 759–774.
M. Vitali, D. Bronzi, A. J. Krmpot, S. Nikolic ́, F. Schmitt, C. Junghans, S. Tisa, T. Friedrich, V. Vukojevic ́, L. Terenius, F. Zappa, Senior Fellow, IEEE and R. Rigler “A single-photon avalanche camera for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and correlation spectroscopy”, JSTQE, 2014.
R. A. Colyer, G. Scalia, F. A. Villa, F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, F. Zappa, S. D. Cova, S. Weiss, and X. Michalet, “Ultra high-throughput single molecule spectroscopy with a 1024 pixel SPAD”, Single Molecule Spectroscopy and Imaging IV. Edited by Enderlein, vol. 7905, p. 1, Feb. 2011.
F. Guerrieri, L. Maccone, F. N. C. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, S. Tisa, and F. Zappa, “Sub-Rayleigh imaging via N-photon detection”, Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 105, no. 16, pp. 163602–163602, Oct. 2010.
S. Bellisai, L. Ferretti, F. A. Villa, A. Ruggeri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Low-power 20-meter 3D ranging SPAD camera based on continuous-wave indirect time-of-flight”, presented at the SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing, 2012, vol. 8375, pp. 83750E–83750E–7.